The most important medications for ischemic heart disease are: *Nitrates like nitroglycerin that produce the blood vessels dilatation. Their action can be short or long. If you place a tablet of nytroglicerin sublingual or you inhalate an oral spray,the effect will be the relieving of angina in a few minutes,but,unfortunately, it will only last for 30 minutes(these are short-acting nitrates). So anyone who suffer from chronic angina should have permanently with them tablets or spray of nytroglicerin.
The nitrates with a longer effect can be found as tablets or skin patches. Because they tend to lose their effect the long-action nitrates are recommended to be administrated at a 8 to 12 hour interval. The most effective nitrate is isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) which works directly on the vascular smooth muscle. The ISDN shouldn’t be administrated after 5 pm and it has an antianginal effect which lasts approximately 6 hours.
*Beta-blockers are used for reducing the period of time when the heart is resting,this means the diminution of the demand of oxygen. Beta blockers have also the effect of decreasing the risk of adverse cardiac events in patients with angina and silent ischemia. It has been proven that beta-blockers and nitrates have reduced the number of heart attackes.
*Aspirin prevents the accumulation of platelets in the walls of the blood vessels. This platelets could build up a clot of fat that could block the coronary arteries and cause a heart attack. The dose recommended is a half of aspirin daily. There are also alternative medications for people allergic to aspirin: clopidogrel bisulphate.
*Calcium antagonists prevent the constriction of blood vessels,this way preventing also the spasm of the coronary arteries.Verapamil or diltiazem have as effect the diminution of the heart rate.Used in connection with beta-blockers these medications can also prevent tachycardia.
*Vitamin C builds up the collagen content of the artery walls and strength them.Many studies show that vitamin C helps preventing heart diseases.
The supplementation of vitamin C protects the blood against oxidation,thins the blood and lowers it’s pressure.No side effects were established at the consumption of vitamin C,even at a high concentration.
*Vitamin E protects low density lipoproteins from oxidation,inhibits the proliferation of smooth muscle cells, which is the principal cause of atherosclerosis,reduces the platelet adhesion,which can bring about blood clots forming.Vitamin E can also help increase the concentration of high density lipoproteins in the blood. All these show that vitamin E is very important in preventing cardiovascular disease,but you should know that vitamin E is also used in preventing diabetes,which can often lead to heart disease.
*Beta-carotene is considered a dietary supplement and is safe taking it even in large amounts. However it has a side effect:the yellowing of the skin at people which take more than 30 mg/day for a long period of time. This effect disappears when the administration of the drug is interrupted.
*Selenium is used as dietary antioxidant,it’s a part of the natural antioxidant of the body and hlps combating mercury’s toxic effects. The low content of selenium in the blood has proved to be a factor of risk for heart disease or cancer. The recommended dose of selenium per day is 50-200 micrograms.
*The B-vitamins (folic acid,niacin(vitamin B3),vitamin B12,vitamin B6) have became an important factor in preventing heart disease. The niacin has also a good effect on diabetes and lower cholesterol levels.
*Magnesium has proven to be very efficient in the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias. Magnesium deficiency is one of the causes of heart attack. Studies showed that heart attacks are frequent in areas with water poor in magnesium.
* Omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oil and flax oil are very important in preventing heart diseases. Patients with borderline hypertension showed a blood pressure lowering after administrating a supplementation with 3 grams of fish oil per day.
Calcium,magnesium and potassium have a strong effect in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. The blood pressure can be lowered with 24g per day or more of dietary fiber.
Finally we should take into consideration that exercise is one of the most important method of preventing heart disease,hypertension,obesity,stroke and diabetes. Researchers came to the conclusion that regular walking combined with sport at least once a week lowers the risk of heart attack. Also it has been shown that postmenopausal women can reduce the risk of heart attack by taking a 30-45 minute walk three times a week.
Another important factor of risk in heart diseases is the stress. People with a high anxiety level are exposed to coronary heart disease twice more than people with a low anxiety level.